電気エネルギーの雑学

ガルバーニはボルタより先に電気の力でカエルの足が動くのを発見したが解釈を間違っていた。カエルの足から電気を起こしたと間違えたからだ。友人であるボルタ(物理化学学者)に報告したところ、本質は2種類の金属で電位差が発生し電池になったと発見した。そのためガルバーニ(生物学者)は同じイタリアであるが電気の創始者とみなされていない。しかし、Galvanoという電流の単位がある。

化学エネルギーを直接、電気エネルギーに変換する燃料電池よりも、従来の火力発電は、エネルギーの変換効率が低いのはなぜか。理論的な最大効率の式も利用して、説明できる。

熱から電気に変換する場合、すべてのエネルギー量を変換できない。高温T₁から発電器を用いて電気を得る時、低温T₂に熱を捨てないといけない。よって必ず熱エネルギーは高温から低温の熱のフローの流れを作らなければならない。つまり原子力も火力も共通して効率が悪い。T₁>T₂より最大効率(%)=(1-T₂/T₁)×100。このT₁とT₂の差が大きい程良い。これが熱を発電に用いる限界である。一方、電気エネルギーは熱エネルギーでなく、化学エネルギーから直接電気エネルギーに変換するため100%に近い効率で良い。100%でないのは、エントロピー損失が起きているからである。カルノーサイクルの制限は熱機関のしばりとも言える。熱を高温から低温にするときに100%他のエネルギー形態に変えられないという制限だ。燃料電池が例だ。したがって、化学エネルギーを直接、電気エネルギーに変換する燃料電池よりも、従来の火力発電は、エネルギーの変換効率が低い

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503 thoughts on “電気エネルギーの雑学

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